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类脑芯片再登Nature子刊,三星哈佛联手“复制粘贴”大脑神经元


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WEILAI,LEINAOCUNCHUXINPIANHUOJUZIZHUXINGHERENZHINENGLI。


XINDONGXI9YUE27RIXIAOXI,HANGUODANGDISHIJIAN9YUE26RI,SANXINGDIANZIXUANBU,QIYANJIURENYUANHEHAFODAXUEJIAOSHOULIANHETICHULEYIZHONGJIANGDANAOSHENJINGYUANLIANJIETU(neuronal wiring map)“FUZHI、ZHANTIE”DAOGAOMIDU3WEICUNCHUWANGLUOSHANGDEKENENG。 


LUNWENZUOZHESHEXIANGCHUANGJIANYIZHONGLEISIRENNAODECUNCHUXINPIAN,GAIXINPIANJIANGJUYOUDIGONGHAO、QINGSONGXUEXI、SHIYINGHUANJINGDENGTEXING,WEILAISHENZHIKEYIJUBEIZIZHUXINGHERENZHINENGLI。 


ZHEIXIANGYANJIUYU9YUE23RIKANDENGZAILEDINGJIQIKAN《ZIRAN·DIANZI》SHANG,LUNWENTIMUWEI《Neuromorphic electronics based on copying and pasting the brain(JIYUFUZHIHEZHANTIEDANAODESHENJINGNITAIDIANZIXUE)》。 


LUNWENDOILIANJIE:http://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-021-00646-1


01 .回归神经电子学科最初目标,逆向工程研究大脑

SHENJINGNITAIDIANZIXUESHIYU20SHIJI80NIANDAI,QIMUDESHILIYONGJICHENGDIANLULAIMONISHENGWUSHENJINGXITONGZHONGSHENJINGYUANWANGLUODEJIEGOUHEGONGNENG。GAIXUEKEDEZUIZHONGMUBIAOSHIJIANGDANAODEJISUANNENGLIDAIDAOGUTAIPINGTAISHANG。RANER,YOUYUMOFANGDANAOSHENJINGYUANWANGLUOGUOYUKUNNAN,GAIXUEKEDEYANJIUZHONGDIANYIJINGZHUANXIANGSHIJIANQUDONGCAOZUO、JIYIZHONGDEXINXICHULIDENGSHOUDAODANAOTEZHENGQIFADEJISHU。 


MUQIAN,ZHEIYIXUEKEDEYANJIUZHUYAOKEFENWEILIANGLEI,FENBIEWEIRENGONGSHENJINGWANGLUO(ANN)HEZIRANSHENJINGWANGLUO(NNN)。 


RENGONGSHENJINGWANGLUOSHIJIQIXUEXIDEKUANGJIA,YIJINGCUSHIGAILINGYUCHUXIANLEYIXILIEQIANGDADERENGONGZHINENG(AI)YINGYONG。ZIRANSHENJINGWANGLUOZESHIZIRANZHINENGDEJICHU,YOUDIANHUAXUETIGONGDONGLI。YURENGONGSHENJINGWANGLUOXIANGBI,ZIRANSHENJINGWANGLUOKEYICONGTIAOJIANHENSHAOHUOTIAOJIANHENCHADESHUJUZHONGXUEXI,YISHIYINGHUANJING。 


YOUYUDANGQIANRENLEIDUISHENJINGYUANRUHEZAIDANAONEIBUGONGZUOZHIZHISHENSHAO,GOUJIANYIGEJUYOUDUTEJISUANNENGLIDESHENJINGWANGLUODIANLUCONGGENBENSHANGSHOUDAOLETIAOZHAN。BANSUIZHERENGONGZHINENGJISHUDEFAZHAN,ZAICPU、GPU、NPU、TPUDENGSHUZICHULIQIZHIWAI,YANJIURENYUANKAISHITUIDONGMONIFUZHUGONGNENGDECHULIQI,ZHEILEICHULIQIZAIAIJISUANZHONGDEGONGHAOGENGDI。 


LUNWENZUOZHERENWEI,ZHEILEIMONIFUZHUDECHULIQIDEYUNXINGFANGSHILINGGANLAIZIDANAO,QICUNNEIJISUANDELINIANJIURUTONGSHENGWUTUCHUFENBUZAIDANAOZHONGYIYANG。BUGUOZHEILEICHULIQIDEMUBIAORENGSHIJISUANAISUANFA,ERBUSHIMONIDANAOYUNXING。SANXINGHEHAFODAXUEDEYANJIUTUANDUIXIWANGHUIDAOSHENJINGNITAIDIANZIXUEZUICHUDEMUBIAO,JITONGGUONIXIANGGONGCHENGYANJIUDANAO。 


02 .CNEA实现数千突触连接记录,3D存储芯片成自然神经网络载体

WEILESHIXIANSHANGSHUMUBIAO,SANXINGHEHAFODEYANJIURENYUANSHIYONGCMOSNAMIDIANJIZHENLIE(CMOS nanoelectrode array,CNEA)HECUNCHUXINPIANDUIDANAOSHENJINGYUANLIANJIEJINXING“FUZHI、ZHANTIE”,GOUJIANZIRANSHENJINGWANGLUO。 


CMOSNAMIDIANJIZHENLIESHICIQIANHAFODAXUEYANJIUTUANDUIDECHENGGUO,GAITUANDUIZAIBANDAOTIXINPIANSHANGJIAGONGCHULE4096GEJILUHECIJIDIANJIDECMOSNAMIDIANJIZHENLIE,XINPIANSHANGHAIYOU4096GEDIANZITONGDAO,KEYITONGSHIJILUSHUQIANGESHENJINGYUANDETUCHULIANJIE。2020NIAN,ZHEIXIANGYANJIUFABIAOZAILE《ZIRAN·SHENGWUYIXUEGONGCHENG》SHANG。 


YINWEICMOSNAMIDIANJIZHENLIEZHONG,MEIGECHUIZHINAMIDIANJIDOUPEIBEILEDIANLIUZHURUQIHEDIANYAFANGDAQI,KEYICHIXUXIANGSHENJINGYUANZHURUDIANLIU,WENDINGXIBAODEDIANSHENGLI,ZHEISHISHENJINGYUANNENGGOUZAIYANJIUDESHIHOUBAOCHIHUOXING。 


ZAISHIYANZHONG,YANJIUTUANDUITONGGUOCMOSNAMIDIANJIZHENLIEYANJIUXIAOSHUPICENGSHENJINGYUANWANGLUO,ZAI19FENZHONGNEICELIANGLELAIZI1728GEDIANJIDEXIBAOXINHAO。ZHEIGESHUZIHAINENGGOUHENRONGYIDIJINXINGKUOZHAN,YINWEIZHIZAOZHENLIEMIDUGENGDA、XINGNENGGENGQIANGDEBANDAOTIQIJIANZHENGSHIBANDAOTIXINGYESUOYIZHIZHUIQIUDE。 


MUQIAN,YANJIUTUANDUIZHENGZAIYANJIUXIAOSHUDESHIWANGMOHEXIUQIU/LIZHUANGPICENGZHONGSHENJINGYUAN,ZHEIXIESHENJINGYUANYOUYUGONGNENGBUTONG,QIZUZHIXINGTAIYEBINGBUXIANGTONG,YOUZHEGEZIDEYANJIUJIAZHI。ZHIHOU,YANJIUTUANDUIYEHUICONGZHEIXIEWAIWEISHENJINGYUANZHUJIANTANSUODANAOSHENJINGYUANDETUCHULIANJIE。 


ZAI“ZHANTIE”ZHEIYIBU,SANXINGHEHAFODAXUEDEYANJIUTUANDUIZEJIHUADANGJILUXIAXIBAONEISHENJINGXINHAOHOU,YONGZHUANMENSHEJIDECUNCHUQIWANGLUOXIAZAIXINHAO,GOUJIANZIRANSHENJINGWANGLUO。 


YANJIUTUANDUIXIEDAO,SUIZHE3DDUIDIE、XIANJINFENGZHUANGDENGJISHUFAZHAN,CUNCHUXINPIANYOUZHECHENGZAIJIYIWANGLUODEQIANLI。QIZHONG,SHANCUN、CIXINGSUIJICUNQUCUNCHUQI(MRAM)、XIANGBIANSUIJICUNQUCUNCHUQI(PRAM)HEDIANZUSHISUIJICUNQUCUNCHUQI(RRAM)4ZHONGCUNCHUXINPIANGEJUYOUDIAN,BEIYANJIURENYUANRENWEIKEYONGZUOCUNCHUWANGLUOZAITI。 


JUTILAISHUO,YANJIURENYUANJIANGYONGJISUANJIFUZHUFENXICHENGXULAITIQUGONGNENGXINGTUCHULIANJIETU,RANHOUYONGGAITUGOUJIAN、BIANCHENGYIGEJIYIWANGLUO。YOUYUYIGESHENJINGYUANZAIDANAOZHONGYUEYOU1000GETUCHU,YINCIJIYIWANGLUOYINGJUYOU1000BEISHENJINGYUANDENEICUNXINPIAN。 


DUIYUCUNCHUQILAISHUO,KUAISUXIERUBINGYANZHENGJIYIWANGLUOBINGBUKUNNAN,DANGQIAN3DSHANCUNDEXIERUSUDUTONGCHANGCHAOGUO100MB/s。DANDUIJISUANJIFUZHUFENXICHENGXULAISHUO,JISHISHI4096GETONGDAOZAI19FENZHONGLIYEHUICHANSHENGYUE80GDESHUJU,SUIZHECMOSNAMIDIANJIZHENLIEJINYIBUKUOZHAN,QISHUJULIANGYEHUIYOUSUOTISHENG。 


YANJIURENYUANYECHANGSHIRAOGUOJISUANJIFUZHUFENXI,JIANGMEIGEGUIJIXINPIANHESHENGWUSHENJINGYUANYIYIDUIYING,ZHIJIEJIANGLIANJIETUXIAZAIDAORRAMHUOPRAMWANGLUOSHANG。DANYOUYULIZITONGDAODESUIJIXINGDENGYUANYIN,RRAMHEPRAMCUNCHUQIHENNANYINGYONGZAIDAXINGWANGLUOZHONG。 


03 .未来或创建类脑存储芯片,甚至可模拟神经元生长变化

JINGUANSHIXIANQILAIHAIYOUHENDUOTIAOZHAN,DANZHEIXIANGYANJIUSHIYIXIANGKAICHUANGXINGDENULI,ZHIZAIDUIDANAOSHENJINGYUANJINXINGZHONGJIAN。JIEZHIMUQIAN,XUEJIETONGGUOXIANWEIJINGYANJIUHUODEDEDANAOXINXIZHUYAOYUANZIJIEBAOTU,MEIYOUDUIBUTONGGONGNENGTUCHUDELIANJIEJINXINGLIANGHUA。 


SANXINGHEHAFODAXUEYANJIUTUANDUISUOJINXINGDEZHEIXIANGYANJIUKEYIZHONGXIANBUTONGGONGNENGTUCHUDELIANJIE,HAIKEZHANXIANLIZITONGDAO、FANKUIYANCHIDENGQITASHENJINGYUANSHUXING。LIXIANGQINGKUANGXIA,GAIYANJIUWUXUJIESHISHENJINGYUANDEGONGZUOYUANLI,JIUXIANGSHIDUIDANAODEKUAIZHAOYIYANGHUODESHENJINGYUANLIANJIEHEFENBU。 


SANXINGCHENG,RUGUOYANJIUCHENGGONG,YANJIURENYUANKEYICHUANGJIANYIZHONGJIEJINDANAODECUNCHUXINPIAN。GAICUNCHUXINPIANJUBEIDIGONGHAO、QINGSONGXUEXI、SHIYINGHUANJING,SHENZHIBAOKUOZIZHUXINGHERENZHINENGLIDENGTEXING。 


LUNWENZUIHOU,YANJIUTUANDUICHENGREN,GAIYANJIUYECUNZAIYIXIELILUNSHANGDEQUEXIAN。BIRUDANAOSHENJINGYUANHUIYINWEIXUEXIHESHENGZHANGERFASHENGBIANHUA,DANGAIYANJIUCAIYONGGUDINGDEXINPIANCHENGZAISHENJINGYUANWANGLUO,WUFAGENZONGDANAOSHENJINGYUANFASHENGDEHUANMANBIANHUA。WEILAI,TAMENKEYICHUANGJIANYIGEJUYOUKESUXINGDEZIRANSHENJINGWANGLUO,MONIDANAOSHENJINGYUANBIANHUA。 


YANJIURENYUANCHENG,TAMENBUNENGBAOZHENGNENGGOUJIEJUEMEIYIGETIAOZHAN,DANXIANGXINKEYITONGGUOZHEIXIANGYANJIUTUPOSHENJINGNITAIGONGCHENG、SHENJINGKEXUEHEBANDAOTIDENGJISHUDEJIEXIAN。 


04 .结语:研究或将加速相关神经元研究

SUIZHERENGONGZHINENGJISHUDEFAZHAN,TUIJIANSUANFA、SHENDUXUEXIDENGYINGYONGXUNSUPUJI,JIQISHIJUE、AIYILIAO、AIXINPIANDENGXIANGGUANXINXINGSAIDAOYONGRULEDALIANGWANJIA。WULUNSHICHUANGQIHAISHIKEJIJUTOUDOUZAIJIAKUAIBUJU,ZHANLINGXINDESHICHANG。 


DANTONGSHI,NAOKEXUEZAISHENJINGYUANMONIDENGFANGMIANDEJINZHANBINGMEIYOURENGONGZHINENGNEIMEDA。BENCISANXINGHEHAFODAXUEDEYANJIUJIWEISHENJINGYUANLIANJIEYANJIUTIGONGLEYIZHONGXINDEKENENGHEFANGXIANG,YEYOUZHEJUDADEYINGYONGQIANJING。ZHEIHUOXUKEYIXIYINGENGDUODIGAOXIAO、QIYEJIARU,JIASUXIANGGUANLINGYUYANJIU。 


LAIYUAN:《ZIRAN·DIANZI》、SANXINGDIANZIGUANWANG 


BENWENLAIZIWEIXINGONGZHONGHAO “XINDONGXI”(ID:aichip001),ZUOZHE:GAO GE,36KEJINGSHOUQUANFABU。